On the project
Presentations of the Gender Pay Gap Project
All the presentations made in the final conference of the Gender Pay Gap Project which took place June 8th at the European Parliament in Zagreb, Croatia can be downloaded.
- Opening Statement Welcoming word and efforts made for implementation of equal opportunities in the labour world by Visnja Ljubicic, ombudswoman for gender equality
- Introduction of the project ′Gender Pay Gap - New solutions for an old problem′ by Nadja Bergmann and Elvira González Gago
- Country specific findings and overview of the actions done Germany - Alexandra Scheele Spain - Cristina Castellanos Spain - Mercedes Valcárcel Belgium - Hildegard Van Hove Estonia - Liina Osila Austria - Nadja Bergman Croatia - Maja Gergorić
- Gender pay gap in elderly age Union for Retired Persons - Jasna Petrović,Croatia
- Presentation of the tool ′eg-check′ a tool-box for testing equal pay Andrea Jochmann - Döll, Germany
- Importance of legal mechanisms Sandra Konstatzky, Ombud for Equal Treatment, Austria
- Presentation ′PPIINA′ Ignacio Gil, Spain
- Presentation of Belgian Law on Gender Pay Gap Hildegard Van Hove, Belgium
- Presentation ′15:57′ Gertrud Astrom, expert and support on the project
Final conclusions conference Gender Pay Gap Project in Zagreb
Following the goals of the project, activities taken and in line with the discussion that had been raised on the conference all participants and partners on the project agreed to formulate eight main final conclusions.
Final Conference Gender Pay Gap Project in Zagreb
Main results of the Gender Pay Gap project were presented during the final conference that took place on June 8th at the European Parliament. The conference also received the support of external experts talking about the gender pay gap in elderly age, a tool-box for testing equal pay, the importance of legal mechanisms and the need of a parental leave system that involves both parents equally and is covered by the public Social Security system. The conference ended with a panel discussion with union officals from the participating countries talking about actions to tackle the gender pay gap in the (near) future.
The presentations of the speakers will be put online later.
Gender Pay Gap Project on Croatian Television
On the occasion of the final conference of the Gender Pay Gap Project, our partners Anamarija Tkalcec from CESI and Hildegard Van Hove from the Institute for the Equality of Women and Men drew attention to the inequality in pay between women and men on Croatian television. Hildegard also talked about the unique law on reducing the gender pay gap in Belgium.
Final conference: Strategies against Gender Pay Gapping
The final conference ′Strategies against Gender Pay Gapping′ of the ′Gender Pay Gap: New solutions to an old problem′ project will be held on June 8th in Zagreb, Croatia in the European Parliament − Information Office in Zagreb, Trg Augusta Cesarca 6.
View the program:
Genderpaygap.eu in your language!
Have you already noticed the language icon in the top right corner? If not, click on it and find the multilingual version of this website. Available languages are those of the partner organisations of this project, meaning Croatian, Dutch, Estonian, German and Spanish.
New action tool - Street interviews: What do you think about the gender pay gap
Within the project, all partner organisations went on the streets in their countries. We wanted to know how big the awareness around the gender pay gap is amongst the broader public. The result was astonishing. Not only do most people, both young and old, know about the gender pay gap, most of them are also aware of (parts of) the mechanism that cause the difference in wage between men and women and most of them don't think the gender pay gap is fair!
You can find these videos on our website under the heading actions & tools.
New action tool - Clocks
Analogue to the Swedish 15:56 movement, we decided on the last partner meeting in Vienna in January 2016, to make clocks for the partnering countries. These clocks represent the time, based on a working day from 9.00 till 17.00, from which women are working for free, if you compare it to a men's wage.
The national factsheets on the gender pay gap in the participating countries are published. The focus is on the situation of the gender pay gap in these countries and more particular in the financial sector and the health sector.
Gender Wage Watchers Network
During the meeting in Vienna, the EU Network Gender Wage Watchers was established. The EU Network Gender Wage Watchers consists of experts on the gender pay gap and organisations who want to work on eliminating the gender pay gap. Members of the EU Network Gender Wage Watchers will have access to all related information. The idea is that through mutual learning, the network will expand their knowledge on the topic and to think about and to present possible solutions to tackle the problem of gender pay gap and to raise awareness in their respective countries.
Interested in joining our network? Please follow this link to subscribe to the Network Gender Wage Watchers.
Compilation of the movies we made
On the final conference of our project the compilation of the movies the partners made was presented.
This ′Comparative Report′ has been prepared as part of the project ′Gender Pay Gap: New Solutions for an Old Problem. Developing Transnational Strategies Together with Trade Unions and Gender Equality Units to Tackle the Gender Pay Gap′ which is a project funded by the PROGRESS Programme of the European Union. The main objective of the project is, in close cooperation with trade unions, gender equality units and other relevant stakeholders, to develop new, innovative strategies to tackle the gender pay gap.
On the one hand, the project concentrates on the gender pay gaps in the financial and insurance sector, and, on the other hand, on the human health sector.
Researchers from each of the participating countries have contributed extensive country-specific in-depth research (country context and sector specific analysis including the financial and insurance sector and the health sector) in cooperation with representatives from trade unions and gender equality units.
The ′Comparative Report′ at hand is a summary of the work conducted by the researchers in each country. This work is based on different methods and approaches including analyses of literature and statistics, interviews with various experts, focus groups with relevant stakeholders and mutual learning meetings on national and transnational levels. The aim of the ′Comparative Report′ is to give comprehensive insights into the situation of the six involved countries concerning the gender pay gap and to propose actions to close the gap. Similarities and dissimilarities regarding each country′s situation might support common action and learning from one another. The focus of the report lies, as in the entire project, on the financial and insurance sector as well as the human health sector.
The report is one element of a multi-faceted approach including research, networking, mutual learning, implementation of initiatives, awareness-raising activities and dissemination strategies and should support activists and stakeholders with arguments and ideas in their struggle to close the gender pay gaps.
'Skandal' mentions our Gender Pay Gap project
'Skandal', the e-zine published by the women's and equal opportunity department of the German Trade Union Confederation, mentions our project on its last page. View here: EU Projekt zum Gender Pay Gap.
Gender Pay Gap conference in Vienna
From 1st till 3rd of June 2015 the second meeting of all partners was held. The meeting took place in Vienna. It has been a very inspiring meeting. The project partners presented their country reports on the gender pay gap with the emphasis on the two selected sectors, being the financial sector and the human health sector. Also the associated partners, coming from the national trade unions and national equality bodies, joined in on the discussion to share their experiences and their work on the gender pay gap.
Apart from these experiences, we were also happy to share in the knowledge of two experts.
Gertrud Åström let her light shine over the situation in Sweden and more particular on her experiences with the platform 15:56.
Maria Pazos is very active in the platform PLENT that demands fully paid and non-transferable parental leave for both partners.
Magazine of the German Trade Union Federation (DGB) "Frau geht vor"
Our project is featured in the Magazine of the German Trade Union Federation (DGB) Frau geht vor in German, see page 21 and 22.
More news on the gender pay gap
Women′s work and the gender pay gap
The Economic Police Institute (Washington D.C.) has proven that women are paid 79 cents for every dollar paid to men-despite the fact that over the last several decades millions more women have joined the workforce and made huge gains in their educational attainment.
Too often it is assumed that this pay gap is not evidence of discrimination, but is instead a statistical artifact of failing to adjust for factors that could drive earnings differences between men and women. However, these factors-particularly occupational differences between women and men-are themselves often affected by gender bias.
Gender pay gap in Wales report
Chwarae Teg (Welsh for Fair Play) has gathered some facts about the gender pay gap in Wales.
Women consistently outperform their male counterparts in general in education in Wales and are more likely to end up with a better degree classification; however, they are significantly under-represented in many sectors and, in particular, in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM).
Marcel Fratzscher on the gender pay gap
Since the planned German law on wage transparency is on hold (and might not be agreed on by the government, Marcel Fratzscher - the president of the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) - has written a great comment for Der Spiegel on the argument that the Gender Pay Gap in Germany is not that high and that women themselves are responsible for the wage differences (since they work part-time and "chose" the wrong jobs...).
Finnish campaign − Women's euro is less than men's
Akava, a Finnish trade union confederation of affiliates for highly educated people, has initiated a campaign aimed at promoting gender pay equality. The amount of women′s euro or female euro on the payslip remains significantly lower than that of men.
"In 2014, the total earnings of women were approximately 82 per cent of men′s earnings. This figure includes any result-based bonuses paid. In 2010, the earnings of women were about 81 per cent of men′s earnings, so there has essentially been no change," says Joonas Miettinen, Researcher at Akava.
These figures were taken from the Structure of Earnings statistics published by Statistics Finland. Miettinen digs even deeper for older statistics. In 2006, the total earnings of women were approximately 79 per cent of men′s earnings.
This gender pay gap will continue to be a burden for today′s wage and salary earners long into the future. Lower pay means a lower pension as well.
Spanish study − Equal pay and collective bargaining
UGT of Catalonia and Maria Aurèlia Capmany Foundation organized the ′Un Futuro sin brecha′ (a Future without the Gender Gap) project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. The project has centred on the search for factors that provoke inequality in the elaboration of collective agreements.
The result is a study based on the analysis of the 129 collective agreements from different sectors that are currently in place in Spain, focusing on aspects like the language used in the remuneration system or the system of professional classification. Besides studying collective agreements, they have elaborated a guide for those in charge of negotiating collective agreements that incorporates the conclusions and recommendations from the study. Through they guide, they aim to make the results public, make people aware of the problem at hand and give those negotiating collective agreements a tool to fight the pay gap.
Report − Which countries in Europe have the best gender equality in the workplace?
A recent study by Glassdoor Economic Research confirmed the gender pay gap is real and significant ranging from 5 to 6 percent in European countries and the U.S. − even after controls for education, work experience, age, location, industry and even job title and company are applied. When looking at the overarching ′unadjusted′ pay gap, the economic cost of motherhood − the increase in the gender pay gap accounted for by the presence of children7 − remains large. Social and family structures in effect tend to penalise women with children. Childcare costs are, in some countries, high relative to earnings; and the burden of unpaid household work and childcare often falls on mothers.
The cost of motherhood is highest in Ireland, where the pay difference (with respect to men) between women with at least one child and those with no children is 31 percentage points. The cost of motherhood is also comparatively high in Germany (23 percentage points): women aged 25 to 44 with no children and who work full−time are paid around 2 percent less than men, compared with 25 percent less when they do have children. In the UK, the gender pay gap increases by 14 percentage points when women have children; in Austria, by 13 percentage points; in France, by 12 percentage points; in the Netherlands by 8 percentage points. The cost of motherhood is lowest in Italy, Spain, and Belgium (3 percentage points or less). In the U.S., the pay difference between women with at least one child and those with no children is 16 percentage points, which is greater than most European countries in this study.
Read more in English.
The simple thruth about the gender pay gap
The American Association of University Women (AAUW) has been on the front lines of the fight for pay equity since 1913. AAUW members were in the Oval Office when President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963 into law, and more than 50 years later, the AAUW continues to lead the push for policies and legislation to encourage and enforce fair pay in the workplace. Pay equity is a priority for AAUW, and it will continue to be until women everywhere earn a fair day′s pay for a fair day′s work.
In January 2009, President Barack Obama signed the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act into law, Since then, AAUW has worked for the passage of the Paycheck Fairness Act, which would give women additional and much-needed equal pay protections. The legislation failed in procedural votes in the House and Senate in the 113th Congress, but the Senate did vote to fully debate the bill for the first time ever in September 2014.
This guide is designed to empower our members and other advocates with the facts and resources they need to tell the simple truth about the pay gap. It′s real, it′s persistent, and it′s undermining the economic security of American women and their families.
10th of March 2016: Equal Pay Day in Austria!
10th of March marks the day where women in Austria should start to work as all the other working days before are not paid for compared to men′s income.
Around this event, on 11th of March 2016, the Network of Austrian Counselling Centres for Women and Girls is organising - together with L&R Socialresearch Austria and the Austrian House of the European Union - a huge conference which will take place in Vienna. The title of the conference is Equal Pay: Right Away!.
The main focus of the conference will be the presentation of different approaches and strategies to combat the unequal pay distribution in Austria. Representatives from NGOs, the Ministry for Education and Women, the Austrian Labour Chamber, Public Employment Service, the Ombud for Equal Treatment, Statistics Austria and the Municipality of Vienna are going to present their ideas, approaches and campaigns. Our project partner from Belgium will also contribute experiences from Belgium.
L&R Socialresearch (www.lrsocialresearch.at) will present important findings of our EU Progress-project "Gender Pay Gap New solutions for an Old Problem", the Network of Austrian Counselling Centres for Women and Girls will present their EU-Progess-project called "Zero Gender Pay Gap".
On 10th of March the Network of Austrian Counselling Centres for Women and Girls and L&R Socialresarch will give a press conference togehter with the Austrian Minister for Education and Women to point at the necessity to develop strategies and measures to combat the gender pay gap.
European Commission - Report Magnitude and impact factors of the gender pay gap in EU countries
This study undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the sources of wage differences between male and female workers in Europe. Its main purpose is to shed light on the interplay of so far neglected explanatory factors as well as to reveal country differences in the roles of these factors. One specific point of interest concerns the impact of gender differences in the incidence of overeducation.
For this reason, our study also examines, in an introductory module, the determinants of overeducation in Europe. In this way, we make contributions to two different, highly debated subfields in labour economics: the overeducation and the gender pay gap literature. In both fields, our innovative features are the large number of determinants as well as the large number of countries simultaneously analysed.
The study is divided into three modules, which build on each other. The main findings are summarised in what follows. For more detailed information, please see the full text of the study. For more country-specific information please refer to the country fiches provided together with this final report. Some suggestions regarding additional variables potentially increasing the scientific usefulness of the three data sets are made in the last chapter of the study.
Read more in English.
Dr. Alexandra Scheele: "Frauen sind wie Männer, nur billiger" In: OXI Wirtschaft für Gesellschaft, 20th March, 2016.
Glassdoor survey details Gender Pay Gap in five countries
Glassdoor Economic Research (GER) has examined the gender pay gap using a unique data set of hundreds of thousands of Glassdoor salaries shared anonymously by employees online. Unlike most studies, GER has included detailed statistical controls for job titles and company names. The gender pay gap in five countries has been estimated: the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany and France.
- The gender pay gap is real. Men earn more than women on average in the examined countries, both before and after adding statistical controls for personal characteristics, job title, company, industry and other factors, designed to make an apples-to-apples comparison between workers.
- A similar pattern is found in all the five countries: a large overall or ′unadjusted′ gender pay gap, which shrinks to a smaller ′adjusted′ pay gap once statistical controls are added.
- To drill down further into what′s causing the gender pay gap, the overall gap is divided into an ′explained′ part due to differences between workers, and an ′unexplained′ part due either to workplace discrimination, whether intentional or not, or unobserved worker characteristics. In all countries, most of the gender pay gap is explained. The ′unexplained′ part is only 33 percent in the U.S. and is less than half in every country.
- Workplace fairness and anti-discrimination remain important issues. But the data show that while overt forms of discrimination may be a partial cause of the gender pay gap, they are not likely the main cause. Occupation and industry sorting of men and women into systematically different jobs is the main cause.
- This research shows that employer policies that embrace salary transparency can help eliminate hard-to-justify gender pay gaps, and can play an important role in helping achieve balance in male-female pay in the workplace.
Read more in English.
19 March 2016 - Equal Pay Day in Germany
On the occasion of the annual equal pay day (19.3.2016), the German equal pay day forum organized a demonstration in Berlin on Friday, 18th March 2016. The demonstration started at the prominent "Victory Column" in the Western part of the city which was decorated by "Equal Pay Day"-flags. From there, demonstrants walked to the "Brandenburg Gate" where the organizers, representatives from the DGB (German federation of trade unions) and the federation for social issues as well as members of the political parties and a representative of the Ministry for Women's and Family affairs made speeches on the causes of the gender pay gap and on political measures against it. The representatives of the government again announced the introduction of a new law on wage transparency.
The German gender pay gap movie is now on the official equal pay forum's website.
13 March 2016 - Equal Pay Day in Belgium
Equal pay for women and men is still not a reality in Belgium. Which is why the progressive women′s rights movement zij-kant and the socialist labour union ABVV organized the annual Equal Pay Day on 13 March.
In front of the Brussels Stock Exchange zij-kant held a rather original game of hopscotch. Men were challenged to walk #InHerShoes to draw attention to the issue of pay inequality between the sexes.
The Belgian gender pay gap movie is now on the website of Equal Pay Day 2016.
Chwarae Teg (Welsh for Fair Play) is an organisation working to build a Wales where women achieve and prosper. It does this by working with women to broaden their horizons and build their confidence and skills and by working with employers to create modern workplaces that successfully harness everyone's contribution. Chwarae Teg also works with influencers, educators and decision makers to build a society that values, supports and benefits women and men equally.
Over the years, Chwarae Teg has worked tirelessly to raise awareness of the Gender Pay Gap and the barriers to women's progression in Wales. There is a strong body of evidence informing the work that Chwarae Teg does which comes directly from research it has commissioned.
Always ambitious and wide-reaching, Chwarae Teg's projects have shaped the culture of women's economic development in Wales since 1992. The current project, Agile Nation2 which is funded through the European Social Fund and Welsh Government, is working with women and businesses in Wales' priority sectors to create a more diverse and gender-balanced workplace.
22 February 2016 - Equal Pay Day in Spain
The two most representative Trade Unions, UGT and CCOO, have claimed the urgency of addressing an increasing gender pay gap by promoting and facilitating effective application of the principle of equal pay in practice.
According to the UGT latest report in Spanish launched today, the wage gap between women and men has reached its highest record within the last 6 years, standing at 24%. To this fact, CCOO adds the fact that there are differences between regions; at 44%, Navarra region remains the highest rate in the country in Spanish.
Both Union Trades agree women are the 'big losers' as the Spanish economy meltdown. The economic crisis has had a higher impact on women placing them into a precarious situation not only in their working age but also in their pensions. In order to get same pay, 'women have to work 88 days more than men' as UGT indicates; or 'women's annual average wage must be increased a 32% to equal that of men' as CCOO has pointed out.
Different political parties have made statements of intentions to initiate specific equality policies to tackle the gender pay gap in Spain. On the occasion of the Equal Pay Day, the Spanish Women's Institute has launched a 'Job Evaluation System from a Gender Perspective' in Spanish. The free-access tool will give companies advice and support in the creation of an objective and fair pay system avoiding gender bias.
Social Benchmarking: The Belgian Trade Union ACV makes a ranking of Belgian companies based on their social performance instead of economic performance. You can find data on the gender pay gap on company level!
Spanish study on remuneration
The Spanish trade Union CCOO presents the third study on remuneration: equity in the Spanish financial sector. The gender pay gap is not included as relevant for the most important companies of the sector, as table in page 21 shows.
Read more in Spanish.
Paternity leave on the political agenda in Spain
Except the PP - the Spanish conservative party - most Spanish political parties have introduced the objective of making the paternity leave equal to the maternity leave in their electoral programmes. Some of them have even detail the transition calendar, explaining that this policy is a key element to reduce the gender pay gap. The Spanish platform for Equal, Non-Transferable and Fully Paid Parental Leave (PPIINA), associate partner to this project, encourages them to pass the already developed law. This objective was approved by absolute majority in 2012 by a non-law proposition in the Parliament.
Agenda 2030 and GPG in Spain
The development agenda 2030 report points out the gender equal payment must be a priority, as Spain is currently the 4th country with the highest gender pay gap in the EU (p.12-13). Antonio López Serrano, from the Spanish Women's Institute, points out the need to reward the assessment of jobs to reduce the gender pay gap (p.15).
The full report (in Spanish) can be downloaded in Spanish.
More income justice between women and men in Germany - legislation
On December 9th Manuela Schwesig, Federal Minister for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, presented basic points of the planned bill for more income justice between women and men which is to be passed by the end of 2016. The draft bill comprises the right to information on wages for employees. Further, companies with 500 and more employees will be committed to monitor the situation of equal pay in their companies and to develop appropriate strategies against the gender pay gap. The draft bill has already been critized by employer's organisations who are arguing that it will lead to an increased bureaucracy. Further it is argued that the gender pay gap mainly results from structural differences regarding the professional career of women and men (e.g. part-time, family breaks) and that therefore the law won't be effective. Contrary to this, several studies have shown that women also face direct wage discrimination. Therefore wage transparency might be an instrument to fight against this since it provides women relevant information.
New data on the gender pay gap in Spain
The National Statistics Institute in Spain has delivered interesting and disappointing data for the GPG on gross wages. Accordingly, in 2014, 41.1% of women had gross wages in the three lowest deciles (less than 1 € 221 / month) compared to 19.7% of men; on the contrary, only 24% of women's wages were among the three highest deciles (more than € 2 173 / month) which compares to 35.7% of men. Women accounted for only 38.3% of workers with wages in the three highest deciles, diminishing their participation by 0.2 p.p. with respect to 2013. At the same time, women represented in 2014 66% of the workforce in the lowest three wage deciles, 0.5 p.p. less than in 2013.
The average gross wage of women was, according to the LFS, 76.11% of that of men's in 2014, which means a deterioration with respect to the 2013, in which women used to earn 77.14% of men's salaries. Interestingly, this deterioration of women's wages concentrates in the medium to high deciles (deciles 5 to 7, 9 and 10), which largely coincide with wages over € 1,400/month. For the first time in the series, the difference between women's and men's wages exceeds € 500/month. Unfortunately, the readily available disaggregation of the information by sex is rather scarce and we cannot offer information about the GPG for the economic activities at stake in our project: financial services and human health activities.
Read more in Spanish.
What's your #PayGapPledge? - 9th of November 2015, Equal Pay Day in UK
9th of November is marked by the Fawcett society as Equal Pay Day in the UK. From this day until the end of the year British women are working for free, as the gender pay gap for full-time work is 14.2%. At current rates of progress it will take 50 years for it to close.
Equal pay can sometimes feel that it's too big a problem to tackle, but there are plenty of things you can do to fight this inequality according to the Fawcett Society.
- Talk about pay at work and find out what your colleagues earn
- Ask your employer whether they are ready for new regulations coming into force next year?
- Tweet us @fawcettsociety and @genderwagewatch your #PayGapPledge
- Write to your MP and ask them what their party is doing to close the gender pay gap
Does the Gender Pay Gap Exist Before Graduates Enter the Workplace? - Study by TotalJobs
Totaljobs' research shows that the gender pay gap in the UK begins before graduates enter the workforce. Our candidate data demonstrates that female graduates apply for jobs whose average salary is £2,000 lower than their male peers.
Apart from Languages and Music/Media, the results are statistically significant across all degree disciplines. This research raises a number of questions:
- Is society doing enough to encourage female graduates to aim higher?
- Why are the pay aspirations of male graduates higher than females?
- What motivates female graduates when applying for jobs?
The study includes comments and theories from industry leaders on why this £2k avg gender pay gap at graduate level exists.
European Equal Pay Day
On 2 November, the European Commission will be marking European Equal Pay Day 2015. As there is a gender pay gap of 16.3% in the EU, from now on women symbolically stop earning for the rest of the year.
The European Commission marks this day to draw attention to the gender pay gap, and its underlying causes. In order to do so, they released:
- a statement by Frans Timmermans, First Vice-President of the European Commission, Vera Jourová, Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality, and Marianne Thyssen, Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs, Skills and Labour Mobility, accompanied by Questions and Answers
- 28 country factsheets for all EU Member States with figures on the gender pay gap and the overall gender earnings gap and an EU factsheet with the same information for the European Union
- an animated infographic explaining some of the reasons behind the gender pay gap
- the results and analysis of the recent public consultation on "Equality between women and men in the EU"
11th of October: Equal Pay Day in Austria: Would you give your daughter less pocket money than your son?
News on GPG issues in Spain and some interesting tools: October 2015
Since the end of September, the set of projects about the Gender Pay Gap promoted and financed by the European Economic Area in Spain are coming to their end. These projects have been implemented by the two most representative Trade Unions (CCOO and UGT), by employers' representatives (CEOE/CEPYME and the CEHAT for the tourism sector), self-employed association (ATA) and Universities of Córdoba and CEU San Pablo. The conclusions and materials produced by these actors follow:
- The Trade Union CCOO has celebrated the final conference of the project and presented the main results of their work in a special monographic issue of its periodical Review "Female Workers" (Trabajadoras) In Spanish. It includes a specific reference to the GPG in the Human health sector. A document with the most relevant conclusions and proposals for collective bargaining is available in English.
- The Trade Union UGT has also celebrated its final conference of the project, which has resulted as well in several publications, including a very interesting research about the GPG in the collective agreements and a Guide for the collective bargaining . Similarly, two informatics tools to measure the GPG have been presented, the so called IGIS (General Indicator for Equal Pay) and IPIS (Weighted Indicator of Equal Pay).
- The employers' association CEOE and CEPYME (for small and medium entreprises) have carried out a specific research on the GPG among SMEs, reaching the conclusion (over a sample of 400 SMEs interviewed through an on-line questionnaire) that women hired in SMEs are overrepresented in salaries under 1,411 euro/month but underrepresented in higher salaries. Resulting recommendations for the promotion of Equal Pay in SMEs are presented in the report.
- The Federation of the Self-employed (ATA) has carried out a similar analysis about the GPG among the self-employed, ("Self-employment as a way to close the gender wage gap", "El autoempleo como herramienta para la eliminación de la brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres"), with a survey to 421 self-employed (248 men, 173 women, reflecting the real weights of men and women): the result is that women are overrepresented among self-employed with turnover under 25,000 euro/year (56.6% vs 40.6% of men) and underrepresented among higher figures (31.9% vs 61.7%, with 8%-12% shares of non-answer). The impact of age, education, family status, economic activity, etc. are briefly analyzed .
- Finally, University studies: the university of Cordoba has organized a final scientific conference on the Gender Pay Gap in rural areas and within rural tourism activities, following a study carried out on the issue. The University San Pablo CEU has presented in an international Congress the results of its work in the project "Mind the Gap " on the GPG and the conciliation difficulties of women.
Furthermore, the external Spanish partner of the project, the PPIINA, the Platform for the promotion of equal and non-transferable parental leaves, celebrated the 20th of October an event attended by political parties that have agreed on the need to eliminate the existing differences between mothers and fathers as regards the current regulation of parental leaves that impede effective equality between women and men. The political parties have declared that they will include (or have already done so) equal and non-transferable parental leaves, to different degrees though.
Kennst du Ronja?
Kennst du Ronja (Do you know Ronja?) is a project by the Austrian Marie Jahoda - Otto Bauer Institut to make the impact of gender (or being a woman) on income visible. Ronja's resume tells why women in our society are still disadvantaged.
Call for Papers "Mind the Gender Pay Gap: New Research Findings"
Deadline for submitting a paper is 1st of November 2015
From 29th June-1st July, 2016 the 9th Biennial International Interdisciplinary conference will be held at Keele University, UK. This edition the topic is Mind the Gender Pay Gap: New Research Findings. The conference brings together current research on the gender pay gap in a comparative perspective. Papers can be send till the first of November. Papers should not only provide new research findings on the causes of the gender pay gap, but also reflect on the effect of current economic crisis on wage inequalities. In this context, intersectional approaches are welcome. In addition, papers which analyze existing or planned strategies to tackle the gender pay gap are especially relevant.
Confusion around Appointment of New Gender Equality and Equal Treatment Commissioner in Estonia
On 3 July 2015, the new Gender Equality and Equal Treatment Commissioner was named by Margus Tsahkna, Minister of Social Protection. The new Commissioner will be Liisa Pakosta who is scheduled to start on 3 October. However, the transparency and impartiality of the selection procedure has raised questions in the public as Liisa Pakosta is a member of the same party as the Minister who appointed her and is considered to have little experience in the field of human rights and equal treatment, while some other strong candidates were excluded in the process. Although 13 NGO-s sent an open letter to the Minister asking to explain the selection procedure and express their concern, the Minister has answered that the procedure was carried out according to the law. Still, several questions remain and it has initiated discussion over the selection process of the Commissioner in general. The Equality Commissioner is an independent and impartial official who monitors compliance with the requirements of the Gender Equality Act and the Equal Treatment Act.
Businesses in US charge women less than men to protest the gender pay gap
In order to protest that gender wage gap, a handful of businesses have recently offered women a discount that reflects the depressing statistic. Men, on the other hand, pay full price. The intention of the protest isn't to try to get even, the owners say. Rather, the goal is is to get people thinking about this issue in a different way: by representing the inequality with cold, hard cash.
30th June 2015: Presentation of the Annual Wage Structure Survey 2013 in Spain
The National Statistics Institute has recently published the results of the Annual Wage Structure Survey 2013. Average annual wage for women was 19,514.8 euro and 25.675,17 euro for men. Average annual female wage was 76,0% of that of men, so the gender pay gap was 24%. This difference varies if similar situations are considered, such as type of contract, full or part-time work, occupation, seniority, etc. The difference between the salaries of women and men diminishes in these cases, so that women's salaries are 83,2% of men's and the gender pay gap 16,8%.
Gender gap in pensions - article collection by EIGE
Inequalities in access to economic resources in old age are immense, and women pensioners face higher risks of poverty in old age as compared to men. The gender gap in pensions throughout the EU is considerable: in 2012, the gender gap in pensions amounted to 38% in the EU on average. The gender gap in pensions can be understood as the sum of gender inequalities over a lifetime, including differences in the life course (motherhood penalty), segregated labour market and gendered social norms and stereotypes more generally.
Spanish Trade Union UGT launches two tools
The first one is the "General Wage Equality index" (IGIS in Spanish Acronym) to know GPG; the second one is the "Weighted index on wage equality (IPIS)", deemed to identify the reasons behind the inequalities, such as contractual differences or the duration of the journey. People in the trade union are being trained for making use of these tools in the negotiation processes they shall participate in. Several seminars have been and are going to be celebrated in several regions for this purpose.
Read more... In Spanish
Seminars by Spanish Trade Union CCOO
The Trade Union CCOO is organising several seminars on the topic "Negociación Colectiva, participación sindical y brechas de género", Collective Bargaining and gender gaps, in the framework of the EEA-Funded project Action Equal Pay.
Read more... In Spanish
New tool for measuring Gender Pay Gap in companies in Spain
The webpage www.igualdadenlaempresa.es set up by the Spanish Ministry for Health, Social Services and Equality, gathers information on gender equality in companies. Recently, a tool for self-measuring the Gender Pay Gap in companies has been presented
Read more... In Spanish
The Global Gender Gap Report 2014 - World Economic Forum
The Global Gender Gap Report 2014 emphasizes persisting gender gap divides across and within regions. Based on the nine years of data available for the 111 countries that have been part of the report since its inception, the world has seen only a small improvement in equality for women in the workplace.
14th of April 2015: Equal Pay Day in US
Women make up nearly half of our nation's workforce. Yet from factory floors to boardrooms, their talent and hard work are not reflected in their paycheck. Today, women on average are paid only 78 cents for every dollar a man earns. For women of color, that pay gap is even wider.
14th of March 2015: Equal Pay Day in Belgium
For the 11th time in a row Equal Pay Day in Belgium was organized by Zij-kant, the progressive women's movement together with the Belgian socialist trade union ABVV. Discover their campaign on www.equalpay.be.
Equal pay: one small (but very important!) step closer in the UK
The 16th of december 2014 backbench MP Sarah Champion tabled a vote in parliament to call for the enactment of a little known but vital piece of legislation, section 78 of the 2010 Equality Act. If enacted, this legislation would require big businesses like ASDA and Amazon to monitor and make public their gender pay gaps and would be an important step forward in closing the gender pay gap. The Fawcett society launched a twitter action to make sure MP's would vote. Read more on this story.
Report Gender Pay Gap in Belgium 2014
The Belgian Institute for Equality for Women and Men publishes since 2007 an annual report on the Gender Pay Gap. Discover the report for 2014 (French and Dutch). The report for 2014 is also in English available.
What goes on in the world?
- Gender pay gap can be reduced by sharing the caring (The Guardian, 16/12/2015)
- Gender pay gap doubles for women over 40 in management, says study (The Guardian, 15/12/2015)
- If we truly valued caring, we would fix the gender pay gap (The Guardian, 15/12/2015)
- Women in Hollywood speak out on the gender pay gap (CNN, 14/12/2015)
- Verdient der Kollege mehr? (Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 14/12/2015)
- Women in London's Financial Sector Expect Lower Bonuses Than Men-Survey (The New York Times, 13/12/2015)
- Women will get equal pay ... in 118 years (The Guardian, 18/11/2015)
- Four ways to close the gender wage gap (The Globe and Mail, 17/11/2015)
- Ten things you should know about the gender pay gap (The Guardian, 10/11/2015)
- The latest: Women earn only 74 cents a dollar (CNN, 10/11/2015)
- Equal pay day: a woman's guide to getting a pay rise (The Guardian, 09/11/2015)
- Equal Pay Day: The powerful women (and a few men) speaking out against sexism and ageism in Hollywood (The Independent, 09/11/2015)
- Women in full-time jobs 'work for nothing' until 2016 (BBC News, 09/11/2015)
- Equal Pay Day: Seven reasons should still be worried about the gender pay gap (The Independent, 09/11/2015)
- Equal Pay Day: Gender gap leaves women ′working for free until the end of the year′ (The Independent, 09/11/2015)
- Gender pay gap: women effectively working for free until end of year (The Guardian, 09/11/2015)
- Wage Gap Intensifies Retirement Shortfall for Women, Highlights Need to Focus on a Solid Financial Plan (CNN, 04/11/2015)
- Equal Pay Day: Warum verdienen Frauen noch immer weniger als Männer? (Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 04/11/2015)
- Jennifer Lawrence Says Katniss Inspired Pay Gap Comments (The New York Times, 03/11/2015)
- The real problem with women's wage slowdown (CNN, 03/11/2015)
- Gehalt von Männern und Frauen Für blöd verkauft (Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 03/11/2015)
- Lagarde: I asked for same pay as male predecessor "or more" (CNN, 29/10/2015)
- Greater Pay Transparency Seen as Bridging U.S. Gender Wage Gap (The New York Times, 28/10/2015)
- The Pay and Respect Gap for Women in the Social Sector (CNN, 27/10/2015)
- Gender pay gap details to include bonuses (BBC News, 25/10/2015)
- David Cameron forces firms to reveal bonus amounts for men and women (The Guardian, 25/10/2015)
- UK Will Force Firms to Publish More Pay Details to Combat Gender Gap (The New York Times, 24/10/2015)
- David O Russell on Jennifer Lawrence's pay gap essay: 'I support her and all women' (The Guardian, 23/10/2015)
- Video: Sophia Loren: Hollywood pay gap always existed (The Globe and Mail, 19/10/2015)
- Equal Pay Day: Frauen arbeiten ab 11. Oktober gratis (Die Standard.at, 15/10/2015)
- Women get paid more than men at GoDaddy (CNN, 15/10/2015)
- Emma Watson and Bradley Cooper praise Jennifer Lawrence for attacking Hollywood pay gap (The Guardian, 14/10/2015)
- Jennifer Lawrence says she's finished being adorable on Hollywood pay gap (The Globe and Mail, 14/10/2015)
- Jennifer Lawrence Speaks Out Against Gender Pay Inequality (The New York Times, 14/10/2015)
- Jennifer Lawrence tackles pay disparity (CNN, 13/10/2015)
- Strijken blijft vrouwenwerk (Ironing stays a women's job. Article on the division of househould tasks - In Dutch) (De Standaard, 10/10/2015)
- Loonkloof tussen mannen en vrouwen gehalveerd sinds 1999 (Gender Pay Gap halved since 1999 - In Dutch) (De Standaard, 09/10/2015)
- Hayek, Paltrow Lend Voices for Equal Pay for Women in Hollywood (The New York Times, 09/10/2015)
- Belgische mannen verdienen zeven procent meer dan vrouwen (Belgian men earn seven percent more than women - In Dutch) (De Morgen, 17/09/2015)
- Fawcett Society: government must take action to address gender pay gap (The Guardian, 06/09/2015)
- Chuka Umunna and Gloria De Piero: Women have waited long enough for equal pay (The Independent, 30/08/2015)
- Women in their 20s earn more than men of same age, study finds (The Guardian, 29/08/2015)
- Gender pay gap reversed for women in their twenties but remains rife among over thirties (The Independent, 29/08/2015)
- Britische Studie Junge Frauen verdienen besser als Männer - Karriere (Sueddeutsche Zeitung, 29/08/2015)
- Young women outearn men-- in some fields (CNN, 05/08/2015)
- Equal pay: Advocates say 'clock out' for black women (CNN, 28/07/2015)
- Los sueldos más altos de la banca multiplican por cinco los más bajos (The highest salaries in banking sector are five times the lowest ones.) (El País, 16/07/2015 - in Spanish)
- The bigger picture behind the gender pay gap issue (The Guardian, 15/07/2015)
- Closing Britain's gender pay gap will take more than David Cameron's audit (The Guardian, 14/07/2015)
- Government undecided on how to present UK gender gap figures (The Guardian, 14/07/2015)
- David Cameron to force companies to disclose gender pay gaps (The Guardian, 14/07/2015)
- Firms who pay men more than women to be 'named and shamed' (The Independent, 14/07/2015)
- British PM Vows to End 'Scandalous' Gender Pay Gap in a Generation (The New York Times, 14/07/2015)
- Britain to Force Firms to Publish Gender Pay Gap Details (The New York Times, 13/07/2015)
- Here's What That '78 Cents to a Man's Dollar' Wage Gap Statistic Really Means (Everyday Feminism, 12/07/2015)
- Larger companies to be forced to reveal whether they are paying men and women equally (The Independent, 11/07/2015)
- The end of unequal pays for the same positions in the public service (In Croatian) (Liderpress.hr, 15/06/2015)
- The gender wage gap: Why it may never close (The Globe and Mail, 29/05/2015)
- Jane Fonda Says Gender Pay Gap 'Unacceptable' (The New York Times, 27/05/2015)
- Gender pay gap in Canada more than twice global average, study shows (The Globe and Mail, 05/05/2015)
- How to solve the gender pay gap? Here's an idea: Cut men's wages (The Globe and Mail, 29/04/2015)
- Pope calls income gap between men and women a "scandal" (The New York Times, 29/04/2015)
- Pope Francis: Christians should support equal pay for women (The Guardian, 29/04/2015)
- California equal pay bill shields women from retaliation for discussing wages (The Guardian, 21/04/2015)
- National Equal Pay Day: Shop charges women less than men to raise awareness of inequality (The Independent, 15/04/2016)
- What Equal Pay Day Says About Working Men (The New York Times, 14/04/2015)
- Stubborn Pay Gap Is Found in Nursing (The New York Times, 24/03/2015)
- Gender pay gap could have been closed by now (The Guardian, 12/03/2015)
- Jane Fonda Urges US to Guarantee Equal Pay for Equal Work (The New York Times, 12/03/2015)
- 45 years after the Equal Pay Act, there's still a long way to go (The Guardian, 08/03/2015)
- International Women's Day: Gender pay gap will not close for 70 years if trends continue, UN says (The Independent, 06/03/2015)
- Equal pay: Sarah Champion's bill was a start but women need to vote with their feet (The Guardian, 16/12/2014)
- Labour calls for transparency on gender pay gap across UK (The Guardian, 16/12/2014)
- The gender pay gap is closing. Here's how to consign it to history (The Guardian, 20/11/2014)
- Gender pay gap shrinks to record low, says ONS (BBC News, 20/11/2014)
- Vigilant Eye on Gender Pay Gap (The New York Times, 14/11/2014)
- Equal Pay Day: Would you agree to work for free for the rest of the year? (The Guardian, 05/11/2014)
- Firms' transparency 'key to equal pay' (BBC News, 04/11/2014)
- A radical fix to the world's wage gap: why not just pay women more and pay men less? (The Guardian, 04/11/2014)
- Nicole Cooke says demand can bring sportswomen pay equality (BBC News, 03/11/2014)
With the very pronounced gender pay gap of 23% in 2013, Austria had the second highest GPG within the EU-28. Looking at the gaps in different sectors, the picture becomes more diverse: While the GPG was extremely high in the financial sector (2013: 30.3%) it was lower in the health sector (2013: 12%). Concerning women's employment's percentage, the financial sector is quite balanced at around 50%, while the health sector is predominately female at 80%. The income level is above the Austrian average in the financial sector (especially for men) and average in the health sector.
Wage-setting mechanisms in Austria
Collective agreements set by social partners are still very important in Austria, including around 90 - 95% of private-sector employees.
Important characteristics of the GPG in Austria
The gender pay gap is very pronounced in Austria - partially explained by the marked horizontal segregation and the huge income differences between sectors.
Intransparency in wage setting and secrecy about wages exacerbate initiatives to close the gender pay gap in Austria.
Although trade unions have some awareness about the GPG in Austria, co-operation with gender equality units and joint efforts to reduce the GPG are not high on agendas.
GPG in the Financial and Insurance Sector in Austria
On the one hand the gender pay gap in the financial and insurance sector is even more pronounced than the overall GPG in Austria, on the other hand, the income levels for women and men alike are among the highest in Austria.
Bonus and commission schemes, appraisal-based payment schemes and individual bargaining elements are of great importance in this sector, all elements in which women are evidently especially disadvantaged.
The vertical segregation is also very pronounced, leading to the conclusion that women are poorly represented within higher-qualified and paid positions. Even when they hold higher-qualified positions they earn far less than their male colleagues.
GPG in the Human Health Sector in Austria
The GPG in the human health sector is low in comparison to other sectors with women earning 80.4% (gross hourly earnings), 68.7% (gross monthly earnings) and 66% (gross annual earnings) of male average income.
Both male and female employees working in the human health activities and social work sector earn approximately the average income of all sectors.
The gender pay gap can be mainly explained by occupational segregation (e.g. medical specialists are mainly male) and a vertical segregation with fewer women in leading positions.
The employment rate of women and men in Belgium is somewhat lower than the EU-28 average. For men it amounts to 66.4%, and for women to 57.2%. A fairly large proportion of female employment in Belgium is part time: 42.7%. For men, this is much lower; i.e. 9.4%. Compared to other EU-Countries, Belgium has a relatively low gender pay gap. It amounts to 9.8%. In the health sector it is somewhat lower (when social work activities with or without accommodation are included). In the financial sector the gender pay gap is markedly higher, and amounts to 21.3%.
Wage-setting mechanisms in Belgium
Belgium has highly collectively regulated wage-setting mechanisms. Social partners set the general minimum wage, and often agree upon specific, higher minima for subsectors. Many subsectors also use collectively agreed upon classifications of functions.
Important characteristics of the GPG in Belgium
Although Belgium has a relatively small gender pay gap in comparison to other EU-countries, this gap is very resilient, considering the many years equal pay has been at the heart of labour and equality policies.
In 2012 an important law was passed in Belgium on tackling the gender pay gap. With some delay, the process of implementation is taking place as we speak (2015).
There are many obstacles in removing the last gendered inequalities in the classifications of functions.
GPG in the Financial and Insurance Sector in Belgium
Average wages are substantially higher in the financial and insurance sector than in the economy as a whole in Belgium.
The gender pay gap in the financial sector is with 21.3% a lot higher than on average in Belgium.
There is a considerable vertical segregation ('glass ceiling') in the financial and insurance sector in Belgium.
GPG in the Human Health Sector in Belgium
The Belgian social profit sector is largely dominated by women: 78.7% of employees are women.
The sector has a high degree of segregation. On a managerial level, the domination of women is much less apparent. Almost half of managers are men. Skilled workers are predominantly men, unskilled predominantly women.
In the health sector in Belgium the share of part-time work is higher than the general part-time employment rates. 54.1% of women's paid work is part-time, for men this is 17.6%.
Compared to the other Member States that are participating in this research, Croatia has the lowest employment rate of both women as men. Croatia is also by far the country with the lowest part-time rate for both men and women. The total gender pay gap of 7.4% is the lowest one amongst the Member States in this research. The same goes with the gender pay gap in the financial activities which is 16.8%. The gender pay gap in the human health activities is 26.5%, which is the second highest rate after Estonia with 28.5%.
Wage-setting mechanisms in Croatia
In Croatia wages are determined via collective bargaining whose institutional and legal framework is regulated within the Labor Law, while public sector wages are unilaterally set by the Government.
Important characteristics of the GPG in Croatia
The gender pay gap is 7.4%, being the lowest of all Member States in the project.
Women's wages amount to 90.4% of men's wages.
The widest gap is found in the financial and insurance sector, health sector and manufacturing industry.
GPG in the Financial and Insurance Sector in Croatia
Gender pay gap by Eurostat: 16.8% - the lowest in the EU.
Women's wages amount to 78.9% of men's wages.
Widening of the gender pay gap with the increase of women.
When looking through the statistics of the gender pay gap for the financial sector in the previous years, one can see that there haven't been many changes.
GPG in the Human Health Sector in Croatia
Gender pay gap by Eurostat: 26.5% - the largest gender pay gap in Croatia.
Most women working in this sector have secondary education, while most men have higher education.
Difference in working hours - nurses and medical technicians are more likely to have unpaid overtime than doctors.
Estonia has the highest gender pay gap in EU-28 (29.9%) which reaches almost twice as high as the EU average. While the GPG in female-dominated (91% are women) human health activities sector is similar to the total GPG in Estonia, the GPG in financial activities sector, where also most of the employees are women (77%) is the highest in Europe with its 44.9%.
Wage-setting mechanisms in Estonia
Most employees working conditions are set by bipartite negotiations between the employer and employee meaning that collective bargaining is not very common in Estonia.
Important characteristics of the GPG in Estonia
Vertical and horizontal labour market segregation and significant income differences between sectors.
Working conditions (especially pay) are fixed in bipartite negotiations between the employer and the individual employee.
Long career breaks for women due to the combined effect of lack of kindergarden places and inflexible parental leave benefit system.
GPG in the Financial and Insurance Sector in Estonia
GPG in financial and insurance sector in Estonia, is the highest in Europe - 44.9% in 2013. The sector is vertically segregated - 77% of employees in the sector are women however most top jobs are fulfilled by men.
Working conditions (especially pay) are determined via individual negotiations between the employer and employee, salaries are not public information making it difficult to determine GPG and in case if it exists whether it is justified.
As of 2013, sectoral level trade union was created, but their focus has not been on GPG.
GPG in the Human Health Sector in Estonia
The most female-dominated sector in Estonia (91%). The sector is vertically and occupationally segregated, men being on top positions.
GPG in the sector is and average wage in the sector is comparable to the national GPG and national average wage level.
Sector is one of two sectors in Estonia that is covered by a sectoral collective agreement, however GPG has not been discussed between social partners.
At 21.6%, the unadjusted gender pay gap in Germany had the fourth highest gender pay gap within the EU-28 and above the EU-28 average in 2013. In the two sectors which have been analyzed in-depth for this study the gender pay gap is even above the average: It was at 29.9% in the financial sector and 25% in the health sector. The health care sector is predominantly female: 78% of all employees are women. The share of female employees in the financial sector is not as high as in the health sector, but with 52% still slightly above the share of male employees. The income level in the financial services sector in Germany is above the average (for both women and men) and at average in the health services sector.
Wage-setting mechanisms in Germany
For large parts of employees and employers wages are set by sectoral collective agreements. Some of these sectoral agreements are furthermore divided into separate regional agreements, e.g. collective wage agreements for the metal and electrical industry. Other agreements are federal agreements being in force for all employers and employees in one sector throughout Germany. Further, large companies often have their own company level agreements. The proportion of employees covered by collective wage agreements ("Tarifbindung") is declining. Minimum Wages are in force only since January 2015.
Important characteristics of the GPG in Germany
With 21.6% the gender pay gap is very high in Germany, with significant differences between East and West Germany. While in East Germany it is only about 8%, the gender pay gap in West Germany is 23%.
The unadjusted gender pay gap can partly be explained with the highly gendered horizontal and vertical labour market segregation, with career breaks and/or part-time work of women and with the undervaluation and traditionally low grading of female-dominated jobs and sectors' (so-called 'women's work") by existing collective agreements.
Intransparent and unsystematic wage setting processes and individual pay agreements are often less advantageous for women.
GPG in the Financial and Insurance Sector in Germany
In general, wages in the financial and insurance activities sector are at a comparably high level. However, the gender pay gap in this sector is 30% and thus above average.
The vertical segregation in the finance and insurance sector is very pronounced and the share of women in managing positions is one of the lowest of all sectors.
Though wages are set by collective agreements at sector level and at company level for large banks or insurances, these agreements are characterized by large scopes for bargaining at company or at individual level. It cannot be ensured that demands in female-dominated jobs and units (e.g. private customer advice, service units) are valued and paid properly in comparison to male-dominated jobs and units (e.g. sales, investment banking). Besides that, regulations on i.e. performance related pay are quite abstract and leave a wide range of configuration options on the company level. This may lead to arbitrary wage-setting decisions and be at disadvantage for women.
GPG in the Human Health Sector in Germany
Wages in the health and social sector belong to the lowest of all industries. Further, the gender pay gap in the human health activities sector is 35.1% and thus highly above the average.
The gender pay gap is caused by vertical segregation on the one hand, but those, who take hierarchically higher positions, are paid less than their male colleagues in the same performance group. On the other hand the GPG is caused by occupational segregation.
The high gender pay gap and the low wage level can be also explained with the sectoral characteristics.
The Spanish gender pay gap used to be lower than EU-28 average, but, along with the economic crisis, it has increased by 3.1 percentage points since 2010 and lays in 2013 above this average, occupying the seventh highest rank. Human health activities show the second highest gender pay gap of all sectors (25.4%), along with a very high share of women's employment (74%); financial activities depict one of the highest GPG mark (23,1%) and a balanced women's employment (49%). The income level is well above the Spanish average, more in the financial sector, particularly among men.
Wage-setting mechanisms in Spain
Collective bargaining is legally binding and has automatic effects in Spain. About 75% of agreements are company specific, but 92% of workers are covered by sector/product ones.
Important characteristics of the GPG in Spain
The crisis has exacerbated the GPG in Spain, reflecting the different impact of internal devaluation on women.
The lack of the co-responsibility principle in structural policies, such as longer maternity leave than paternity leave, is recognised as underpinning the GPG in Spain. Horizontal / vertical segregation and bonuses/complements contribute to explain the GPG. However, an economy with wide minimum wage and limited female part-time may explain a lower level than in other countries.
Trade Unions and Employers' representatives currently focus on the GPG, albeit with different approaches. The Ministry is working with the enterprises on voluntary basis.
GPG in the Financial and Insurance Sector in Spain
The gender pay gap in the financial and insurance sector is among the highest in Spain, coupled with the highest average income both for women and men.
Since the representation of women is balanced (48%), vertical segregation is behind the high gender pay gap. The banking sector has established a shorter working time in the collective agreement, so it has better conditions to balance work and family life. However, the usual need of longer working hours to be promoted explains in part the gendered vertical segregation and the gender pay gap. Co-responsibility is not recognized as a principle of reconciliation of work and family life.
Moreover, non transparent bonus, commissions and appraisal-based payment schemes are the rule and play against equality.
GPG in the Human Health Sector in Spain
The gender pay gap in the human health and social work activities is the second highest in Spain, offering higher than average income both for women and men.
This sector is female-dominated (77% are women), with a pronounced element of vertical and horizontal segregation.
Flexible and not standard working time arrangements in the health sector are very common and directly related to complements to the salary.
The Project Gender Pay Gap
New solutions for an old problem.
Developing transnational strategies together with trade unions and gender equality units to tackle the gender pay gap
Co-funded by the PROGRESS Programme of the European Union
The main objective of the project is to develop new, innovative strategies to tackle the gender pay gap in close cooperation with trade unions, gender equality units and other relevant stakeholders. In many European countries the issue of unequal pay is on political agendas and has gained certain relevance in the media/public and research discourses. But statistics on gender pay gaps show however, that much more needs to be done to enable effective improvement.
One of the core elements of the proposed project is the theoretical and practical exchange of knowledge between activists, researchers and stakeholders with the aim to create new strategies in narrowing the gender pay gap. The project focuses on the role of trade unions and other relevant stakeholders such as gender equality units, and the possibilities to strengthen their influences in combating the gender pay gap. Trade unions as the key actors in collective bargaining are facing a situation where the pressure on wages is amplified and flexibilisation of working conditions call for new strategies to be made in tackling the gender pay gap. Gender equality units as relevant partners in these political processes need to be involved as well as other NGOs and employer's representatives.
Participating countries are Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden as external expert, as well as representatives from European institutions like ETUC (European Trade Union Confederation). The project comprises a multi-faceted approach including research, networking, mutual learning, implementation of initiatives, awareness-raising activities and dissemination strategies. The exchange between researchers and stakeholders in a mutual learning process leads to application-orientated research and research-based application.
The expected results can be summarised into two main fields. On the one hand, new country-specific and transnational knowledge about reasons for and strategies against the gender pay gap are developed and exchanged. This includes country-specific context and sector-specific research. On the other hand, the project created an active network of trade unions, gender equality units and other relevant stakeholders. This network, called 'Gender Wage Watchers' is going to develop and implement innovative strategies and activities tackling the gender pay gap during the course of the project and will initiate further activities after the official end of the project. The main outputs and deliverables are:
- Detailed national research reports, fact sheets on country-specific main findings and a comparative brochure summarising transnational findings and recommendations.
- The EU Network 'Gender Wage Watcher' is going to hold a Mutual Learning Meeting and a Final Conference 'Strategies Against Gender Pay Gapping'. The results of these networking activities are going to be summarised into two documents.
- National and transnational implementation strategies to tackle the gender pay gap are elaborated on and summarised in national and transnational action plans.
- The multilingual website EU Web-Platform 'Gender Wage Watchers' is the key tool to disseminate documents, tools for action, recommendations etc., for awareness-raising and for internal project communication.
- To disseminate information about the project, its activities and its results, the following strategies are envisioned:
- The EU Network 'Gender Wage Watchers' including the above mentioned organisations on national and EU levels, is also open to other experts, stakeholders and NGOs.
- The multilingual EU Web-Platform 'Gender Pay Gap' as a tool for activities and dissemination.
- The Network and the Platform 'Gender Wage Watchers' is connected to social networks (Facebook and Twitter).
- Media campaigns at national and transnational levels facilitate the dissemination of results.
- The research institute L&R Social Research was founded in 1989 by a group of social scientists with long years of experience with conducting empirical research projects. Right from the start, gender studies and applied gender research have been an important topic. The experts from L&R Social Research support players from public, private and non-profit institutions, to achieve equal opportunity objectives by research, development and consultation. The scope of the research covers issues revolving around the labour market, labour-market policy,social policy, reconciliation of work and family, education and professional qualification. In these fields,L&R Social Research has produced and published a large number of studies focusing on the practical relevance of research, providing insight and concrete recommendations for an action-oriented approach. This combination of the analytical and practical aspects of scientific findings provides a firm basis for future decision-making.The institute is an independent, private company. Its financial base proceeds from research projects commissioned by public and private institutions.
- RoSa is a Centre of Expertise, Library and Archives on Feminism, Equal Opportunities and Gender Equality. Situated in Brussels, Belgium, RoSa centre of expertise is the address in Flanders for information and documentation on women since 1978. If you are a member of a women's movement, a student, an investigator or simply interested in feminism, equal opportunities and women's studies in Belgium or any other country, RoSa is the right place to find information.
- Cesi is a feminist organization that advocates for advancement of women in our society, realization of gender equality, and for full implementation of all laws and international mechanisms for the protection of human rights. Development of civil society we perceive as an important precondition for the development of a democratic society. CESI is working on education and support to mainly women and youth which are coming from different socio-economic contexts and are active in the field of social, cultural and political life in Croatia, through schools, institutions, political parties and civil society organizations. Cesi's role in the project will be to organize a meeting of the project partners and to prepare an activity with learners (seminar, workshops), to inform the general public and local community about the project, to work with media and CESI's web portal Libela (a portal on democracy, sex and gender which is a unique one in the region) and to participate actively in the project monitoring and evaluation.
Center for Policy Studies
- Praxis Center for Policy Studies (Praxis) is an Estonian leading independent think-tank whose expertise and impact is acknowledged in following policy areas: education, economy, health, labour and social policy, governance and civil society development. Our activities are characterised by new knowledge and discovery of new approaches as well as dissemination of empirical evidence. In doing that, we focus on combining academic knowledge with practical solutions and approaches.
Praxis was founded in 2000 as the first independent non-profit think tank in Estonia. The mission of Praxis is to improve and contribute to the policy-making process in Estonia and beyond by conducting independent research, providing strategic counsel to policy makers and fostering public debate. Three main courses of action have developed in Praxis: analysis and research activities, knowledge brokering and training. Politically independent, methodically high-quality applied research and analysis still constitute the core activity of Praxis, which is reused and developed further in training and consultation projects.
Liina Osila is an employment relations analyst in Praxis. For the past 5 years she has analysed collective labour relations in different sectors and is the person who you should contact in case you want to know more about Estonian trade unions and employers' associations. She has studied gender issues in social partner organisations in Estonia. In addition to collective labour relations, Liina has also analysed active ageing policy in Estonia by participating in international research projects which focus on older workers opportunities and barriers in the labour market and policies and measures that aim to extend working lives and keep older workers in the labour market. Liina also has several years of experience as project (including international) manager.
- With its 10,000 students, the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg (BTU) is the second largest university and the only technical university in the state of Brandenburg. The University collaborates in teaching and research with other universities and research institutions as well as with local small and medium-sized companies and large international organizations and enterprises. The BTU combines the differing academic profiles of application-oriented and research-oriented bachelor and master programmes in one organizational framework. Together with professional training, postgraduate research studies, and Ph.D. programmes, the resulting wealth of educational paths can be shaped according to individual preferences and potential. Research at the chair for economic and industrial sociology focuses on innovation, service work, transformation of work in the energy sector, regional labour market challenges and gender, work and organization.
Alexandra Scheele, Dr., Academic Assistant at the chair for economic and industrial sociology at the BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg. She is a social scientist (sociology and political sciences) specialized in work organization, labour market and gender studies. She is also member of the European Network of Experts on Gender Equality - ENEGE and co-editor of the German Journal on feminist political sciences "Femina Politica". Further information on research, teaching and publication.
Centro de Estudios
Económicos Tomillo - CEET
- CEET (Centre for Economic Studies Tomillo) is an independent, international and highly-qualified company that provides services based on the analysis of economic, social, labour and spatial phenomena and also provides services in the fields of technology and innovation. It offers a wide range of services aimed at solving decision-making problems, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary perspectives and strategic approaches. We identify problems, provide assistance in preparing and executing projects, and design the monitoring and evaluation of actions carried out. CEET employs a team of post-graduates who have an expert knowledge of public sector economics, sectoral economics, econometrics, labour economics, social exclusion / inclusion and gender mainstreaming, among others.
Leticia Henar Lomeña is Project Manager at the Centre for Economic Studies Tomillo, SL. She is a post graduated economist and expert in economy and public policies (social inclusion, equal opportunities, education, employment, etc.), she has a wide experience in the evaluation and design of strategic and operational plans linked to public policies, benchmarking and good practices and economic and social analysis. Currently, gender issues constitute one of her main areas of interest and specialization.
Among the numerous projects she has carried out, the participation in researches promoted by the Women's Institute. Also, she has participated in research projects for public and private Spanish institutions, such as the Ministries for Employment, Social Services and Equal Opportunities and the respective Departments of various Spanish regions.
of Human Relations (TIHR)
- The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations (TIHR) is a social science research, consultancy and training organisation that applies social science ideas and methods to real world problems of policy and practice. A distinctive feature of the Institute's work is its focus on social, organisational and policy dynamics through a focus on human relationships between organisations. The Institute is particularly known for its expertise in action research, industrial democracy, and political and human dynamics, focused in the areas of employment policies, health and social welfare, partnerships, learning, families, and local & regional development.
The Tavistock Institute brings a holistic and human-centred approach to bear on the complex, multi-dimensional nature of the gender pay gap problem across Europe. It publishes two peer reviewed journals: Evaluation - The International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice - and Human Relations.
Cristina Castellanos, Senior Researcher and Consultant at Tavistock Institute of Human Relations (UK). She is an economist specialising in gender mainstreaming, labour market and public policies from an international perspective. She is experienced in the impacts of policies on gender equality, labour, poverty, care arrangements, relationships, time use, individual and household dynamics and decision-making at organisational, national and EU level.
Additionally to the members of the project team, the project can count on the support of external experts:
- Gertrud Åström: Former president of the Swedish Women's Lobby and executive manager hela HUT AB.
As president of the Swedish Womens's Lobby she has initiated the 15:56-movement, cooperation between women's organisations, the political parties women's leagues and unions, addressing the gender pay gap in Sweden. She will contribute with her long-term experience in the Swedish context to research and networking in Swedish and EU-context. She will help in exchange of the project and the NORDISKT Forum taking place in June 2014 in Malmö (www.nf2014.org).
- Dora Levačić: Researcher at the Organization for Workers' Initiative and Democratization (OWID) has profound scientific background on the gender pay gap in Croatia. She will contribute to the project with data analysis, conducting interviews and writing reports.
- Elvira Gonzalez, in collaboration with Centre for Economic Studies Tomillo, SL. (CEET). She is a post graduated economist specialised in employment, social cohesion and gender policies. She has worked in the CEET for the last 17 years. She has been the Spanish labour market expert of the European Employment Observatory since 2001 and the Spanish member of the European Network for gender, employment and social inclusion (ENEGE) since 2008. She has also directed research projects for public and private Spanish institutions, such as the Ministries for Employment, Social Services and Equal Opportunities and the respective Departments of various Spanish regions.
The key experts in the selected countries contacted trade union organisations and gender equality units in their countries. Not all contacts lead to a signed partner declaration which was mainly due to the holiday period in July and August, but in all countries involved representatives from trade unions as well as gender equality units declared their willingness to participate. We were able to receive signed associated partner declarations from the following organisations:
- ETUC (European Trade Union Confederation)
- Ombudsperson for Gender Equality, Croatia
- Austrian Trade Union Federation (ÖGB)
- Ombud for Equal Treatment Austria
- Platform for Equal and Non-Transferable Parental Leave (PPIINA, Spain)
- The Confederation of German Trade Unions (DGB), Department Women and Gender Equality
- Ver.di United Services Union Germany
- Industrial Union of Metal Workers, Department of women and equal opportunities, Germany
- Institute for the Equality of Women and Men, Belgium
- Algemeen Christelijk Vakverbond (ACV ), General Christian Trade Union Department Gender, Belgium
- The Office of Gender Equality and Equal Treatment Commissioner, Estonia
The role of the ETUC is crucial in coordinating trade union activities tackling the gender pay gap on European level. Therefore we see the involvement of the ETUC as an important part in the establishment of the project. In the process of developing the concept there has been contact with Claudia Menne, confederal secretary of the ETUC, who was in charge of (gender) equality, anti-discrimination, workers' participation (industrial democracy) and social protection.
The composition of the partnership has its strength in the combination of research institutions and NGOs working in the fields of gender equality guaranteeing a fruitful collaboration.
Developing Transnational Strategies Together with Trade Unions and Gender Equality Units to Tackle the Gender Pay Gap
In many European countries the issue of unequal pay is on political agendas and has gained certain relevance in public, in the media and in research discourses. But statistics on the genderpay gaps show however that much more needs to be done to enable effective improvement. Hence the main objective of this project is to develop new, innovative strategies to tackle the gender pay gap. This project focuses on the role of trade unions and other relevant stakeholders such as gender equality units and the possibilities to strengthen their influences in combating the gender pay gap. Participating countries are Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Estonia, Germany and Spain as well as representatives from European institutions including the ETUC (European Trade Union Confederation). Researchers from each country cooperate with representatives from trade unions and gender equality units and elaborate country specific in-depth research: a country context analysis and sector specific analysis including the financial and insurance sector and the health sector. The project comprises a multi-faceted approach including research, networking, and mutual learning, implementation of initiatives, awareness-raising activities and dissemination strategies. One of the core elements of the proposed project is the theoretical and practical exchange of knowledge between activists, researchers and stakeholders with the aim to create new strategies in narrowing the gender pay gap.